# Useful Equations

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#### Calculating molarity Where volume is in liters

#### Converting between mass and moles Where mass is in grams and molecular weight is in grams per mole

#### Dilution Equation Where both volumes are in the same units and both concentrations are in the same units.

#### Going from ratios to amounts

For a solution of a ratio of a:b:c where a, b, and c are coefficients for relative volumes, to calculate the volumes need for a solution of volume :   This is generalizeable for any amount of coefficients

#### Converting between g/mL and mol/mL #### Calculate standard error of mean where SE is the standard error, s is the sample standard deviation, and n is the sample size.

#### Reversal Potential #### Logarithm Rules

Given a number y, which is in log base b ( ), to undo the log and find x, use the following equation: Other logarithm properties:

Addition: Multiplication: Base Change Formula: for any positive numbers b, x, and y.

Note: taking taking the average and then undoing the log is not mathematically equal to undoing the log then taking the average. That is to say: The right is the arithmetic average and the left is the geometric average which are not equivalent.